|República Federativa do Brasil
Federative Republic of Brazil
|Ethnic groups||white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (2000 census)|
|Exchange Rates||USD CAD EUR GBP|
|Monthly Minimum Wage||R$380 per month (2007); adjusted annually by the Federal government.|
|HIV Percentage||0.7% (2003 est.)|
|Time zone||see Time_in_Brazil (UTC-2 to -5)|
|DST||see Time_in_Brazil (UTC-1 to -5)|
|Electricity||Brazil has a variety of electrical voltages, sometimes within the same city, the better hotels offer 220 volts. If not, transformers are available in electrical stores. Outlets often accept a variety of plug types but the two-pin type is standard.|
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest and most populous country in South America; and the fifth largest in the world in both area and population. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it is the easternmost country of The Americas and borders every other South American country except Ecuador and Chile (viz. Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French department of French Guiana).
Brazil was colonized by Portugal and it is the only Portuguese speaking country in the Americas. It is a multiracial country with a population composed of European, Amerindian, African and Asian elements, more often mixed in the same individual than separated into different communities. It has the largest Roman Catholic population in the world.
Brazil's population is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups. In general, Brazilians are descended from four sources of migration:
- Amerindians, Brazil's indigenous population, descended from human groups that migrated from Siberia across the Bering Strait around 9000 BC.
- Portuguese colonists and settlers, arriving from 1500 onward.
- Diverse groups of immigrants from Europe, Asia and the Middle East arriving in Brazil during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
- African slaves brought to the country from 1530 until the end of the slave trade in 1850.
- Ethnic groups
- white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7%
- Religious affiliation
- Roman Catholic 73.9%, Protestant 15.4%, agnostics or atheists 7.4%, other religions 1.7%, Spiritism 1.3%, and African traditional religions 0.3%
see also List of cities in Brazil
Country Executive Monger Summary
Brazil is the western hemisphere's "mecca" for mongers. Prostitutes are in almost every city with pros (Garotas de programa) and semi-pros available. There are also places of prostitution such as Termas.
Policy: Not illegal. It is illegal to operate an hotel or a house for prostitution purposes, to live off a prostitute’s earnings or to exploit a child for the purposes of prostitution.
Practice: Prostitutes are tolerated. Transvestites are generally arrested for offending public morals. Male prostitution is either subsumed under female or categorized as homosexuality.
Read more at Brazil Sexuality.
- International Airports:
- Galeão Antonio Carlos Jobim International Airport (GIG)
- Guarulhos International Airport (GRU)
- Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek International Airport (BSB)
- Citizens from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay may enter the country with a valid ID card and stay up to 90 days.
- No visa is required for stays of up to 90 days from holders of passports from South Africa, Croatia, all EU countries (except Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Israel, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bulgaria, Colombia, South Korea, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Philippines, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, Iceland, Macau SAR, Malaysia, Morocco, Namibia, Panama, Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, Surinam, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Venezuela.
- Citizens from the following countries currently need a visa for Brazil: Australia, Canada, China, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, United States, El Salvador, Nicarágua, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Armenia, Lebanon, Siria, former soviet countries and others not listed above.
- Travelers from the United States can expect to pay US$100 for a 5 year visa.
- Tourist Season:
- All year round, peak times December - March (end of Carnival).
Brazil is a very large country with many transportation options, hence the separate page.
- Brazil has international country telephone code 55 and two-digit area codes, and phone numbers are eight digits long. The number of digits has been increased from seven to eight recently in some areas, meaning you might still find some old seven-digit phone numbers which won't work unless you prepend another digit (which depends on the area code and the first digit of the original number. Mostly, try adding 2 or 3).
- Eight-digit numbers beginning with digits 2 to 6 are land lines, while eight-digit numbers beginning with digits 7 to 9 are mobile phones.
- All cities use the following emergency numbers:
- 190 - Police
- 192 - Ambulance
- 193 - Firefighters
- To dial to another area code or to another country, you must chose a carrier using a two-digit carrier code. Which carriers are available depends on the area you are dialing from and on the area you are dialing to. Carriers 21 (Embratel) and 23 (Intelig) are available in all areas.
- The international phone number format for Brazil is +55-(area code)-(phone number)
- To dial to another area code: 0-(carrier code)-(area code)-(phone number)
- To dial to another country: 00-(carrier code)-(country code)-(area code)-(phone number)
- Local collect call: 90-90-(phone number)
- Collect call to another area code: 90-(carrier code)-(area code)-(phone number)
- International Collect Call: 000111 or through Embratel at 0800-703-2121
- Public payphones use prepaid cards with a number of credits. Phone booths are nearly everywhere in the cities and do not accept coins, but the standard prepaid cards can be used in all booths, regardless of the owner phone company. These cards cannot be recharged, but are easily available in shopping centers, gas stations, post offices, etc. Calls to cell phones (even local) will use up your credits very quickly (nearly as expensive as international calls). Calling the USA costs about one real per minute.
- Cellular companies
- A yellow fever vaccination is recommended for those travelling to rural areas and parts of São Paulo and Parana. Those travelling from infected areas require a yellow fever certificate. Typhoid and Hepatitis A immunisation is also recommended. Mosquito-borne diseases like dengue fever and malaria are prevalent and insect protection is strongly advised. Malaria exists below 2,953ft (900m) in most rural areas, and outbreaks of dengue fever occur frequently.
- Chagas disease, caused by a parasite, is widespread in rural areas of Brazil. Until recently infection was believed to be from insect bites only, but an outbreak in March 2005 that has caused three deaths in Santa Catarina was traced to the ingestion of sugar cane juice contaminated with the faeces of vector insects, and further cases were linked to the ingestion of bacaba wine from roadside stalls; visitors are advised to seek medical advice urgently if any of the symptoms occur (fever, nausea, muscle aches and pains and/or swelling at the site of the insect bite).
- Tap water is heavily treated resulting in a strong chemical taste; bottled water is, however, freely available for drinking purposes.
- Milk in rural areas is not pasteurised. Travellers are advised to take along medication for travellers' diarrhoea.
- Hospitals in the major cities are fairly good, but medical costs are high and medical insurance is strongly recommended.
- Portuguese is the official language, Spanish is somewhat common in larger cities and some English in tourist areas.
- Take the effort to learn some Portuguese. Be aware that Brazilians do not perceive themselves as Hispanics, and will only take offense if addressed in Spanish initially but are willing to switch if you are more proficient in Spanish and if they are comfortable speaking it.
read more at Brazilian Phrases
- Nearly all hotels add a service charge to the bill, usually 10%. Most restaurants also add 10% or more to the total of the bill, but must make it clear that they have done so; waiters appreciate another 5% if their service has been good. Brazilians don't normally tip taxi drivers, except if they handle bags, although they may round up the total. Hotel staff expect small tips and most services expect 10-15%.
- Food & Drinks:
- Other Info:
- Brazilians consider themselves Americans not Latinos. Consequently, don't use the phrase 'in America' when referring to the United States.
Summary of Conclusions
- Strengths: Brazil is relatively cheap country but developed well in urban areas. Plus with a very large population the odds of finding girls in great. Anal sex is widely excepted.
- Weaknesses: Crime is very bad in large cities especally in or around favelas.
Cities with Executive Monger Summaries
Brazil is a federation consisting of twenty-six states (estados) and one federal district (Distrito Federal), making a total of 27 "federate units".
The Brazilian states enjoy a significant autonomy of government, law making, public security and taxation. The government of a state is headed by a Governor (governador), elected by popular vote, and also comprises its own legislative body (assembléia legislativa). Each state is divided into municipalities (municípios) with their own legislative council (câmara de vereadores) and a mayor (prefeito), which are autonomous and hierarchically independent from both federal and state government. A municipality may include other towns (distritos) besides the municipal seat; those, however, have no separate government.
The judiciary is organised at the state and federal levels within districts called comarcas. One comarca may include several municipalities.
- See also
- States of Brazil · Regions of Brazil · List of major cities in Brazil · List of cities in Brazil
Brazil is characterized by the extensive low-lying Amazon Rainforest in the north and a more open terrain of hills and low mountains to the south — home to most of the Brazilian population and its agricultural base. Along the Atlantic seacoast are also found several mountain ranges, reaching roughly 2,900 metres (9,500 ft) high.
The highest peak is the 3,014 metre (9,735 ft) Pico da Neblina (Misty Peak) in Guiana's highlands. Major rivers include the Amazon, the largest river in the world in flowing water volume, and the second-longest in the world; the Paraná and its major tributary, the Iguaçu River, where the Iguaçu Falls are located; the Rio Negro, São Francisco River, Xingu, Madeira and the Tapajós rivers.
A number of islands in the Atlantic Ocean are part of Brazil:
- São Pedro e São Paulo (Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago}
- Rocas Atoll
- Fernando de Noronha
- Trindade and Martim Vaz
- The North constitutes 45.27% of the surface of Brazil and it is the region with the lowest number of inhabitants. With the exception of Manaus, which hosts a tax-free industrial zone, and Belém, with the biggest metropolitan area of the region, it is a fairly unindustrialised and undeveloped region. It accommodates most of the largest rainforest of the world and many indigenous tribes.
- The Northeast has one third of Brazil's population. The region is culturally diverse, with roots from the Portuguese colonial period, Afro-Brazilian culture and some Brazilian Indian influence. It is also the poorest region of Brazil, and has long periods of dry climate. It is well-known for its beautiful coast.
- The Central-West has a low demographic density compared to the other regions, mostly because of the Pantanal, the world’s largest marshlands area, and a small part of the Amazon rainforest, in the northwest. However, much of the region is covered by Cerrado, the largest savanna in the world. It is also the most important area for agriculture in the country. The most important cities of this region are: Brasília (the capital), Goiânia, Campo Grande and Cuiabá.
- The Southeast is the richest and most densely populated region. It has more inhabitants than any other South American country, and hosts one of the largest megalopolis of the world, whereof the main cities are the country's two biggest ones; São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The region is very diverse, including the major business centre of São Paulo, the historical cities of Minas Gerais and its capital Belo Horizonte, the third-largest metropolitan area in Brazil, the world famous beaches of Rio de Janeiro, and the acclaimed coast of Espírito Santo.
- The South is the wealthiest region by GDP per capita and has the best standard of living in the country. It is also the coldest region of Brazil, with occasional occurrences of frosts and snow in some of the higher altitude regions. The region has been heavily settled by European immigrants, mainly of Italian, German, Portuguese and Slavic ancestry, and shows clear influences from these cultures. The most important cities of this region are: Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Blumenau, Novo Hamburgo, Londrina, Caxias do Sul, Pelotas, Passo Fundo and Joinville.
Located mainly within the tropics, Brazil's climate has little seasonal variation. In southernmost Brazil, however, there is subtropical temperate weather, occasionally experiencing frost and snow in the higher regions. Precipitation is abundant in the humid Amazon Basin, but more arid landscapes are found as well, particularly in the northeast.
Brazil's immense area is subdivided into different ecosystems, which together sustain some of the world's greatest biodiversity. Due to the relatively explosive economic and demographic rise of the country in the last century, Brazil's ability to protect its environmental habitats has increasingly come under threat. Extensive logging in the nation's forests, particularly the Amazon, both official and unofficial, destroys areas the size of a small country each year, and potentially a diverse variety of interesting plants and animals.
With abundant fauna and flora, Brazil is home to many thousands of species, most of them still undiscovered. By 2020, it is estimated that at least 50% of the species resident in Brazil will become extinct.
As several of these specimens possess special characteristics, or are built in an interesting way, some of their capabilities may be copied for use in technology. The revenues derived from such plans may still hold the key to preserve the country's animal and plant species.
There is general consensus, that Brazil has the highest number of both terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates of any country in the world. This high diversity of fauna can be explained by the sheer size of Brazil and also the great variation in ecosystems. The numbers published about Brazil's fauna diversity can vary from source to source, as taxonomists sometimes disagree about species classifications and information can be incomplete or out of date. Also new species continue to be discovered and, sadly, some species go extinct in the wild. Brazil has the highest primate diversity of any country in the world with 77 species and fresh water fish (over 3000 species), it claims the second-highest number of amphibian species, the third highest number of bird species and is ranked fifth in reptile species. Many of the species that are at risk live in threatened habitats such as the Atlantic Forest.
The capital of Brazil is Brasília. According to the Constitution promulgated in 1988, Brazil is a federal presidential representative democratic republic, wherein the President is both head of state and head of government. Currently the President of Brazil is Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula). He was re-elected on 29 October 2006, extending his position as President of Brazil until the end of 2010. One of the fundamental principles of the politics in the Republic is the multi-party system, as a guarantee of political freedom.
The administrative structure of the State is a federation; however, Brazil has included the municipalities as autonomous political entities making the federation tripartite: encompassing the Union, the States, and the municipalities. The legal system is based on Roman law.
Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool, Brazil's GDP (PPP) outweighs that of any other Latin American country, being the core economy of Mercosul. The country has been expanding its presence in world markets. Major export products include aircraft, coffee, vehicles, soybean, iron ore, orange juice, steel, textiles, footwear, corned beef and electrical equipment.
According to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, Brazil has the ninth largest economy in the world at Purchasing Power Parity and eleventh largest at market exchange rates. Brazil has a diversified middle income economy with wide variations in development levels. Most large industry is agglomerated in the South and South-East. The North-East is the poorest region of Brazil, but it is beginning to attract new investment. Brazil's diverse industries range from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer goods and amount to one-third of the GDP. With the increased economic stability provided by the Plano Real, Brazilian and multinational businesses have invested heavily in new equipment and technology, a large proportion of which has been purchased from North American enterprises.
Brazil has a diverse and sophisticated services industry as well. During the early 1990s, the banking sector amounted to as much as 16% of GDP. Although undergoing a major overhaul, Brazilian financial services industry provides local businesses with a wide range of products and is attracting numerous new entrants, including U.S. financial firms. The São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro stock exchanges are undergoing a consolidation.
The core culture of Brazil is rooted in the culture of Portugal. The Portuguese colonists and immigrants brought the Roman Catholic faith, the Portuguese language and many traditions and customs that still influence the modern-day Brazilian culture.
As a multiracial country, its culture also absorbed other influences. The Amerindian peoples influenced Brazil's language and cuisine and the Africans, brought as slaves, largely influenced Brazil's music, dance, cuisine, religion and language. The Yoruba traditions, from nowadays Southwest Nigeria had made its way strongly into Afro-Brazilian religion and into Brazilian religiousness as a whole. Ancient Yoruba Orishas (gods) like Shango and Oxum are largely worshipped in Brazil, while the Samba and the Capoeira music/Capoeira martial art were originally contributions from the Bantu peoples from Angola. Italian, German and other European immigrants came in large numbers and their influences are felt closer to the Southeast and South of Brazil.
- See also
- Brazilian Carnival · Brazilian Cuisine and Drinks · Brazilian Music · Brazilian Cinema · Sports in Brazil · Brazilian Holidays
- ISOC Forums
- Information, News, & Discussion Brazil Information, News, & Discussion about the country.
- Hotels & Condos Brazil Hotels & Condos
- Places of Interest Brazil Places of Interest
- Transportation Brazil Transportation
- Trip Reports & Pictures Brazil Trip Reports & Pictures
- Pictures Brazil Naked Chicas
- Brazil Sun News archive
- Brazzil Magazine archive
- Government and administration
- Brasil.gov.br — Official government portal
- Câmara dos Deputados — Official Chamber of Deputies site
- Presidência da República — Official presidential site
- Senado Federal — Official Senate site
- Information and statistics
- Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Brazil
- Library of Congress — A Country Study: Brazil
- Encyclopaedia Britannica Brazil Country Page
- National Library
- Satellite images of Brazil's main cities
- Brazil, a biodiversity hotspot
- Economy and business
- Brazilan-American Chamber of Commerce, Inc.
- "Brazil’s Presidential Election: Background on Economic Issues" from the Center for Economic and Policy Research
- News and opinion
- The Council on Hemispheric Affairs Another independent source of news and opinion on Latin America
- Accommodation in Brazil — Guide courtesy of the Brazilian embassy in London, UK
- Islands in Brazil A site about islands and beaches of Brazil